Category Archives: Blog entry 2

Blog Entry 2

Posted on by 0 comment

This post will revolve around the yummy Italian dish lasagna!

I’ve always been obsessed with noodles, pasta, and other carb-heavy items, so of course, lasagna is a cherished food choice for me. When I was younger, I feel like whenever my mom made lasagna for dinner it was just that- the large flat pasta noodles, tomato meat sauce, and cheese. However, as I grew older, I guess I may have gotten over the idea of meat, and didn’t exactly love the idea of lasagna anymore because I knew there would be meat in it. As such, my mom began making a vegetarian version without meat and instead with vegetables like spinach and the occasional bell pepper addition. Regardless, these two versions were always tomato based. It seems like every couple years, my taste buds would change on a schedule because once again, after just a couple years of aging, my tastes favored the alfredo type sauce, but it’s been so long since my mom’s made lasagna, that we haven’t yet tried out this third version. However, during Italian 102 this past spring semester, Professor Muratore allowed us a cooking day, in which we went to work making bruschetta for the appetizer, alfredo-based lasagna for the main meal, and tiramisu for dessert! This was probably the first time I had tried this third version and it was delightful! I think this transition I’ve gone through with my taste buds has allowed me to see that there can always be variety with food. No matter what kind of dish we’re dealing with, we can always make it exciting and new. Even though I grew out of the meat sauce and eventually tomato-based lasagna in general, I think that if I was served up some good tomato meat sauce lasagna yet again, I would love it just the same as I did as a child, because I was able to create the different varieties, and also due to the memories associated with the original. I think both Italians and every other culture definitely appreciate the joy that food and variety bring, and it demonstrates that creativity exists among all of us, even in a culinary perspective.

*Side note: Traditional Italian lasagna and most other Italian dishes involve pig products like pork and sausage. As a not-so-meat-lover and also due to my religion, I would like to mention that I do not consume any pig products, but they are included in the recipe linked below.




Professor response to Domain entry 2: CHN/ITAL 190

Dear students,
We were thrilled with your second Domain entries and continue to be impressed with your insights, creativity, and investment in the material.

In this Domain entry you went deeper into the three sociological approaches to food and eating: functionalist, structuralist, and developmental. We were impressed with your depth of understanding of the approaches and of the movie content itself. You should be proud of your research and analytical skills. It was a delight to read your work. We particularly enjoyed those entries that explored sociological approaches through content-driven study involving detailed examples from the films. We also appreciated the supporting materials many of you included in your entries, such as drawings, pictures, designs, quotes, poetry, links, and tables.

Below are some suggestions for future entries:
1) Make sure when you are discussing theories in your entries that you use concrete details rather than generalizations from the film. The traditional lunch Master Chef Chu packed for Shan-Shan (and specific details about what he packed) and the example of Chef Primo’s outrage at the customer who wanted to eat two starch dishes at the same time (risotto and spaghetti) are fantastic examples that many of you used to illustrate sociological approaches to food studies. The specificity and detail of these examples shed light and clarity on the theories themselves;
2) make sure you lead into your entry with strong introductory and conclusion paragraphs, which first set the stage for what you plan to say and then tie your essays together. Introductions are the perfect place to establish the structure of your essay and provide an overview of your argument. Conclusions are a way to tie things up and talk about future research possibilities. You can also utilize storytelling techniques to introduce material at the start of your essay and then circle back to the story at the end. This gives your essay a round, circular structure that feels complete;
3) make sure you define the terms within your essay. If you are talking about the structuralist approach, you should define the term “structuralist” first before you move into examples from the film;
4) please read through your entries and conduct spelling, grammar and subject/verb agreement checks. It’s easy to make an aesthetic error when immersed in content so pour through your entries more than once with different aims in mind—a content read first, then a grammar and typo check. It often helps to print out your entry, write changes on the paper copy, and then return to make the changes on your computer. For some reason structural, content, and typographical errors jump off the printed page in a different way than they do on your screen and are often easier to find.

Wonderful entries, everyone. We are so honored to be working with you and we are truly inspired by your scholarship.


Christine and Hong

Approaches to Food in Film

Posted on by 0 comment
The unique exercise of understanding how approaches to food systems are displayed in entertainment movies reveals interesting American and ethnic social concepts. In the 1996 film, Big Night, starring Tony Shalhoub and Stanley Tucci among other actors and actresses, the central role immigrants is illustrated. The importance of food to the act of immigration, as well as the financial part of running a business is highlighted. The movie begins by showing the interaction of Italian immigrant brothers, Primo and Secondo, as they serve a customer a seafood risotto. The customer complains of the lack of seafood, and also asks for a side of lasagna, which Primo finds appalling, as that would be a starchy redundancy. However, the concept of pleasing a customer shines when Secondo comments that it is more important to make a profit by pleasing the customer than to displease the customer and lose the profit. In juxtaposition, the restaurant across the street, run by Pascal, successfully makes a profit, in part by pleasing its customers. The interaction of the two restaurants, and the way in which each Primo as opposed to Pascal hope to run their restaurants shows a way in which the developmental approach to the food system could be seen. Using the developmental approach, it is clear to see that Pascal is able to change and adapt his food system to make a profit, while Primo lacks the ability to change his food system, leading to his lack of customers and profit. By displaying the movie in this fashion, viewers are able to see the potential benefit of a developmental approach to analyzing a food system, as changes and adaptations can be made to improve a situation. On the other hand, the 1994 film Eat Drink Man Woman depicts another view on how the importance of food and its relevance to personal lives. The movie follows the separate lives of three daughters of a former chef as they go through personal dilemmas. The dilemmas and problems of each daughter converge on a natural, yet unexpected backdrop: the dinner table. The film highlighted a key component of the structuralist point of view by analyzing the deeper, profound meanings behind the characters and their struggles. Many food symbols were also used to illustrate emotions or events. The structuralist point of view is further elucidated as the dinner table becomes a place where problems are discussed thoroughly, more than just scratching the surface in a functionalist point of view. In this way, food also acts as a social glue, bringing the family together and sharing in their problems.  Holistically, both films exhibited multiple examples of all three methods of analyzing society. The functionalist, structuralist, and developmentalist ideas were presented in each work through the motifs of food symbols and the importance of food to social interaction. In addition, the cultural side of food is seen through the Italian-American and Asian-American lens; both films highlight a cultural divide that is bridged, which can be described as a part of all three methods of analyzing society. Although each method of analysis has different functions and benefits, understanding the role of each function, as highlighted through the film, brings about a greater sense of clarity and comprehension on the themes food and its role to society. 

Analyzing Food Systems in Big Night and Eat Drink Men and Women (Rhea Nair, ITAL190)

Now the title of this post might be misleading for a very short time, as I’ve only thought and talked about the food system’s in Big Night for now.

Big Night narrates the story of two Italian brothers, Primo and Secundo who have come to the land of opportunity to realize their dreams. The audience is presented with an intriguing contrast in philosophies between the two- Primo lives to cook, while Secundo cooks to live. Unfortunately for them both, financial constraints of the real world threaten the closing of their restaurant. When the end of the brothers’ restaurant seems near, their enormously successful yet friendly competitor throws them a rope and promises them the presence of the famous musician, Louis Prima, whose appearance might just be exactly what they need to save them.

The first half of the movie largely portray’s the brothers’ preparation for their “big night”, while the latter deals with the night itself. Both give a tremendous amount of scope for observation and analyses of food systems from the three principle approaches.


Taiwan to Italy: Three Perspectives (Cecillia Bae, CHN 190)

For both Master Chef Lu from Eat Drink Man Woman, and Primo fromBig Night, food and cuisine holds a much deeper and intricate meaning than simply satisfying taste buds. Both strive to create immaculate dishes, perfectly complementing one another that reminds others of the rich culture and traditions behind each dish. Firstly, functionalism specifically focuses on viewing specific and individual pieces of any whole. In Eat Drink Man Woman, Chef Lu makes incredible effort in order to start preparing the myriad of dishes for dinner from early morning, using only the freshest ingredients. The outcome is a diverse array of meticulously mastered dishes, each of which would not be complete without the pieces within. Similarly, Primo from Big Night pays unfaltering attention to the specific pieces, or ingredients for each of his masterpieces.
Big Night
Big Night
The quality of the ingredients for his famous risotto are of upmost importance, as he labors the entire day to create the most perfect, authentic dish.   Secondly, structuralism focuses more on the meaning and symbolism of food, and the relationship between the food and the eater. In Eat Drink Man Woman, the family’s Sunday night meals may be a ritual the daughters reluctantly attend, but stand for much more than that. Through all the heartache, drama, and difficulties, the family is united by the food set in front of them, and use it as a vehicle to share and overcome their frustrations and hardships. Chef Lu’s daughters flourish in modernity; thus, their Sunday meals serve to remind them of their heritage and culture. Similarly, for Primo, his authentic cuisine illustrates the rich Italian culture that he strives to share with his customers. It enrages him to see mediocre dishes such as spaghetti and meatballs served, as he believes it disparages the Italian culture, and cuisine in general. Thirdly, developmentalism will focus more on past traditions, such as the links connecting the food to its past origins. Chef Lu sees the Sunday meals he creates for his daughters
Eat Drink Man Woman
Eat Drink Man Woman
to be of upmost importance, as it serves as one of the only remaining links connecting his daughters to their traditions and heritage. In a different vein, even though his restaurant is failing, Prima refuses to adhere to serving the Americanized version of the Italian cuisine that his rival prepares for his customers, no matter how popular those dishes may be. For Prima, it’s either sharing the most authentic version of his dishes in order to keep his culture alive, or nothing. Thus, the views of functionalism, structuralism, and developmentalism were clearly evident in both films, and worked to portray the main themes each film strived to portray. All three viewpoints served to illustrate the significance of authentic culture for both Chef Lu and Prima, and how each bite helped remind the characters of their rich roots.  

The 3 Systems of Approaching Food in Movies.

Written By Jonathan Brown CHN 190

As a person who is in love with food of all types, I find it rather interesting to observe the different systems that exist in how we view food. From reading chapter 3 of The Sociology Perspectives of Food and Eating, I was introduced to the functionalist, structuralist, and the developmental views on food. These different systems of views play a big role in the everyday life of people, and what I find astounding is that these views we hold are so prevalent yet most of the time we pay little to no attention in observing or even taking notice to them.

The functionalist system is based an analogy between society and an organic system. In other words, this system suggests that society sees food as a necessity for society to live in the same way that the organs in the body are vital in its survival. An example of the functionalist view observed in the movie(s) we were to watch for class was when Shan-Shan in Eat, Drink, Man, Women was unable to eat breakfast at home so she was left to eat something quick for breakfast on her way to school. I believe this was the functionalist view because it appeared that Shan-Shan was just trying to get some food in her system so she would be able to make it through the day at school, and she did not really appear to enjoy it much. Although the functionalist view does have some validity, I feel it arguable to say that it is not the most reliable system to depend on in deciphering human outlooks on the use of food. It consists of some dysfunctional features that make it seem somewhat unrealistic being that it leaves open the question about the non-nutritional role of food in society.

The structuralist system of looking at food is quite impressive in explaining the traditional roles of food.  According to our first reading, this system analyses the structure of the mindset that humans possess in regards to food. I find it quite remarkable because it brings forth the idea of individuals seeing food as a code for some sort of event. For example foods such as pancakes, eggs, and bacon serve as a code to Americans that it is time for breakfast, while foods such as steak, mashed potatoes, and corn serve as a code for dinner. In the movie Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, the big dinner that Mr. Chu spends all Sunday cooking for his daughters serves as a code for their tradition of a big feast every Sunday in which the whole family can come together and spend quality time. Another example of the structuralist system is when Primo in the movie Big Night is reluctant to make spaghetti with meatballs for his unsatisfied customer because it simply is against tradition for it to go with the seafood dish that was served. Like the functionalist system, the structuralist system has flaws being that it is does not address the changes that can and do occur in the food system.

The final system that I was introduced to in examine the roles of food is the development system. Although the functionalist and structuralist systems are very well thought out and are true to an extent, I find the developmental superior because it takes into account the changes in traditions, social relations, and patterns that occur throughout time. According to the reading, social change is important and conflicts and contradictions can be responsible for such changes. Examples of the developmental approach in Big Night was when Secondo and Primo discussed serving Americanized food in their Italian restaurant since that was what sells in their new social environment in the States. An example of this in Eat, Drink, Man, Woman was when Mr. Chu brought Shan-Shan her lunch to class due to the conflict of her not having enough time to properly planning her lunch. Overall all I feel that the developmental approach to food is most effective in explaining human behavior. The key thing that this approach does that the prior two fail at is allowing evolution in human ideas and thoughts to take place.

Domain 2 Entry

The two reading documents given to us before watching the movies gave me an insight into traditions of noodles in China and Italy. The story of long-life noodle was especially interesting because it contained both cultural and culinary lessons. Reading this document let me understand the significance of food in Chinese culture before watching “Eat, Drink Man and Woman.” Since I have taken several Chinese courses in high school, watching Chinese movie has been one of my favorite ways to learn Chinese language and its culture.
Movie “Eat, Drink Man and Woman” starts with splendid food cooked by Master Chu, who used to be a chef at a hotel restaurant. Master Chu’s family gathers at home every Sunday for a family tim, and this is an important aspect of Chinese culinary culture. Unlike Westerners, who often prefer to eat food in order, Chu’s family and other Chinese enjoy eating dinner with their family as they spend time together to have conversations and share their stories. However, when the three daughters declare independence, moving out from home, at the dinner table, the usual family gathers seem to be over soon. I see this such phenomenon as an example of developmental approach in analysis of food culture, because more and more people in Asia are getting used to a culture of fast foods, instead of cooking and having a meal with their family at home. In terms of culture, Korean culture of food is very similar to that of China. When I was young, my grandmother or my mother always cooked for my entire family, while my grandfather and my father prepared the dinner table by putting silverwares and plates on the table. Contrast to those days, my family now gathers only for big holidays, and we often go to restaurants even when we gather for such events. This is definitely an example of developmental approach, because the contrast between past and present is very clear.
Functionalists would say the variety of food represent the diversity in Chinese culture, and the role of each family member in the family gatherings also a part of functionalism because we can see on surface in the movie. For example, in the movie, Master Chu is the one who cooks for his three daughters. His responsibility of cooking the entire meal shows his responsibility of his three daughters without his wife.
Structuralists would focus on the affinity among the family members, friends, and neighbors. In the movie, a lot of conflicts occur between Master Chu and his three daughters. Although they misunderstand each other for a while, they end up understanding each other in the end. Reconciliation between the second daughter and the father in the end shows the inevitable affinity in the family, and it is a very important part of structuralism. This movie gives a lesson that we need to realize how important our family are in our life. we often assume our family would know everything about us without talking to them. However, just like caring about other people, we need to put our family in priority.
Overall both movies have all the approaches we have learned in the last assignment: functionalism, structuralism, and developmental approaches, though they display those aspects in a very different ways.

Domain Entry 2 – Dania Quezada

Functionalist Approach to Food Systems The functionalist approach to analyzing food systems rests on the analogy that society is a body whose individual parts work together in a complex system of interlocking processes. When applying the functionalist approach to analyzing food systems, each institution of the society in question is analyzed to determine what it contributes or how it helps shape the society. In the film Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, the functionalist approach can be applied most strikingly to the ritualistic Sunday dinners the family holds. These dinners, which are prepared solely by Mr. Chu, the father, serve the manifest function of providing food for the family in an environment in which each family member can communicate formally with the rest of the family. The Sunday dinners also perform the latent function of providing Mr. Chu, a semi-retired and aging master Chinese chef, with an opportunity to safely practice his great skills and receive attention from his daughters. Thus, the Sunday dinners help shape what can be considered the society of the Chu family by providing a space for formal conversations where important information is related as evidenced by the extravagantly prepared food they consume whilst making important announcements. In the film Big Night, Primo and Secondo’s carefully planned and executed diner for Louis Prima serves the manifest function of winning the favor of the famous musician by plying him with delicious Italian cuisine while also serving the latent function of proving to the two Italian immigrant brothers that with enough heart and hard work the American dream is achievable for anyone. Structuralist Approach to Food Systems The concept of structuralism maintains that surface linkages such as culinary structures are manifestations of deeper, underlying structures of the human mind and society. Structuralism operates under the assumption that the deep structures of human society parallel the deep structures of the human mind, and with this in mind, if one can crack the code of the design of human society and its surface linkages, than one can decipher the complexities of the human mind. The structuralist approach to food systems posits that food serves as a language that can help one understand the affinity between society and the human mind. Food can also function simply as units of information about social events and relations between people. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, the extravagance of the food indicates the formality of the occasion, and the careful manner in which Chu Jia-Chien hesitantly critiques her father’s food indicates his pride in that he is not accustomed to receiving critiques on his food. Chu Jia-Chien’s reluctance to comment on the over-cooked pork is further explained later on in the film when she reveals that she perceives her father as unwilling to recognize that women can be just as culinary talented as men. This revelation and the almost pained interaction between father and daughter at the dinner table provide a window into the ingrained sexism of the society of contemporary Taiwan and the way in which men and women perceive each other. In Big Night, though Primo is painfully aware of the financial ruin that his restaurant is heading towards, and yet he refuses to allow his food to undergo the “rape of cuisine” that occurs in restaurants that serve Americanized versions of Italian food in the hopes of attracting a large umber of people with easily recognizable foods such as steak and spaghetti and meatballs. In fact, Primo is so unwilling to bend to the American society’s demand of Americanized Italian food that he refuses to serve a side of spaghetti to a woman who has ordered risotto because both dishes are comprised primarily of starches. Primo’s perfect food, from its meticulous preparation to flawless serving, is a reflection Primo’s perfectionist mind and fastidious nature. Developmental Approach to Food Systems The developmental approach demands that those who observe existing cultural forms and patterns of behavior consider how they are related to past cultural forms and patterns of behavior. Thus, the developmental approach to food system looks to form connections between the past and the present. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, a subtle indication of Western influence in Taiwan is seen in the place of employment of the youngest of the Chu daughters, Chu Jia-Ning. Chu Jia-Ning works at a Wendy’s selling fast food meals centered on fried chicken. The fast-paced nature of the food that Chu Jia-Ning prepares, cooks, and serves mirrors the fast-paced nature of her relationship with her friend’s ex-boyfriend and father of her child, a relationship that was quick to evolve and surely would not have flowered had Chu Jia-Ning been raised in a past society where the slow, carefully planned preparation of food paralleled the slow, carefully planned relationships between people. In Big Night, westernization of Italian cuisine is portrayed much more prominently, and its role in the plot’s development is significant because it serves as the primary antagonist against the integrity of Primo’s cooking. Primo considers Americanized Italian food to be so foul that he declares it to be the “rape of cuisine” and loathes his competitor for selling it successfully. As his competitor explains to Secondo, Americanized Italian food is so popular because people want Italian food that they recognize and relate to, a condition of American society that stems from the history of hard labor of Americans and the complexities of their stressful lives that lead them to seek simple pleasures such as a good plate of steak or spaghetti and meatballs.

The application of three Sociological approaches in movies

In last week’s reading assignment, Alan Bearddsworth and Teresa Keil introduced three sociological approaches – functionalist, structuralist, and developmental approaches – to analyze food system. These approaches clearly play out in two movies I watch this weekend – Big Night and Eat, Drink, Man, Woman. In this post, I will first introduce two movies, and then analyze three approaches in detail and how these approaches are applied in movies. 8326cffc1e178a82f7a3f8dbf403738da977e82aIn the movie Big Night, two brothers – Primo and Secondo, came to America from Italy, and opened an Italian restaurant. However, they met financial problems and the restaurant was abo ut to close. Secondo went to Pascal, the owner of a popular Italian restaurant for some advices. Pascal promised that he would bring a prestigious musician to their restaurant and asked them to prepare a big dinner. The mov35a85edf8db1cb13bb42a46fdd54564e92584ba7ie Eat, Drink, Man, Woman tells the story between a family and food. The father in the movie was a respectful cook in Taipei, and he had three daughters. Because three daughters were very busy during weekdays, every Sunday became the “meeting day” for this family, and everyone had to have dinner at home. In the reading material, the functionalist approach examines the role of each component and its interrelationship and interdependency of the entity. In the food system, it focuses on producing, allocating and consuming. Functions of components mainly fall into three categories, manifest function, latent function, and dysfunction. Manifest function refers to recognized function; latent function implies unrecognized function; dysfunction is considered as social pathology. The functionalist approach is fully played out in movie s. In Big Night, Prima was very strict with allocating vegetables and the process of cook. Before the big night, he argued with the vegetable seller, since he believed that vegetables were not fresh, and the quality of vegetables will influence the taste of food. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, there are a lot of scenes of the father’s preparation for food. For example, he made some very small holes on the skin of the pork before cooking, so that the pork can be tastier. The preparation for food is very important in China, since food will have another taste without the preparation. 6a00d8341ef22f53ef0120a8d632b1970b-800wiThe structuralist approach analyzes rules and conventions how foods are classified, prepared, and combined with each other. With this approach, foods are seen as communication, and sociologists such as Lévi-Strauss, Mary Douglas, and Roland Barthes are able to examine the relationship between rules and the deep structure. In Big Night, Primo changed the recipe of Pasta, and eliminated meatballs in his new recipe. However, customers did not like his new recipe, since they believed that it would not be an Italian dish without meatballs. At last, Prima had to change his recipe. This story shows the rule of cooking and conventions. Customers are used to conventional Italian food, and refuse to accept the new recipe. I notice a detail in Eat, Drink, Man, Woman that shows the idea of structuralism. The father blew air in between the skin and flesh of the duck before he roasted it, in order to get crisp skin and allow the fat to melt away during roasting. This is the rule of roasting the duck. People early in China found that blowing duck will make the skin crisp, and therefore cook follows the rule every time when they roast the duck. The developmental approach is widely used today, in which the contemporary society is connected with the past. Sociologists attempt to understand social changes in terms of their directions, processes, and origins through this approach. The developmental approach states that the past forms of traditional rules, norms and meanings should be taken into account when we try to understand them in the contemporary society. In Big Night, Primo changed his recipe to meet Americans’ tastes. In this case, the recipe of an Italian restaurant in America has to change, so that Americans would like the restaurant and there would be more customers. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, I find the developmental approach play out on something besides cooking. After two daughters left the house, the father wanted some changes in his life, and then he decided to sell the house and marry a woman. In this case, his daughters changed and left him, and therefore, he started to live another way at his sixties.

Domain Entry 2

As mentioned in the Sociological perspectives on food and eating, Food and eating is not a simple activity for humans to obtain required nutrients but an activity through which humans can perform one’s identity or by extension, society’s distinct cultural life. In the movie Big night and Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, three approaches which are functionalism, structuralism and developmentalism can be found. Functionalism is based upon an analogy between a society and an organic system. Just as body consists of different organs with certain roles, society is seen as a set of features and intuitions which make their own contribution with functional significance. In both movies, two chefs primarily focus on the very basic steps of cooking before anything else. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, the first few minutes of the movie only displays the Master chef preparing for his “Sunday dinner with his three daughters” ritual from very first step which is choosing the right ingredients himself. He also emphasize on how salt shouldn’t be used at all in all dishes. He focuses to follow the tradition. Moreover, when he points out to Jin-Chein used too much ginger in her dishes, we can assume that he regards the very details very important which will make up the dish as whole in the aspect of functionalism. Also, Primo from the Big Night insists to stick to the fresh ingredients when making his dishes. Structuralism differs from the functionalism in that it claims to look below the superficial linkage into deep structures analyzing the very structure of human thought. This perspective can be shown in both movies in that both chefs tried to continue with their traditions even with some struggles. In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, the Master chef Chu was very strict on his family ritual which was to have dinner in course in such a high quality in both the taste and the visual. Every time each of the family member had announcement to deliver which includes marriages and promotion, they would use that family time of having dinner together as a chance to be candid being away from the busy daily life of their own. Throughout the movie, the three daughters and Master chef Chu ease this struggle through the family ritual which plays the role of communication.  In Big Night, Primo also tries to stick with the tradition keep selling the genuine Italian dishes after finding what the customers really want in American style. In developmentalist perspective, social change becomes a primary focus in terms of its directions, processes and its origins.  In Eat, Drink, Man, Woman, there were two approaches: First, in family ritual and second, in society’s tradition as a whole. The Master chef Chu was very strict on his daughters to be in his kitchen for cooking. In a more broad sense, he didn’t let Jia-Chein to continue her interests in cooking but at the end he acknowledged her talent. Also, when at first he always had insisted the formal course for meal, he later knew to make it simple for Shan-shan’s lunch at school. Being simple in meal also links to Jia-Ning’s job working at a fast food store. These changes were suitable and necessary for the social change under the aspect of developmentalism.